Tulburati de importanta data de Aldo Rossi tipologiei formelor urbane in arhitectura si de pozitia radicala formulata de Manfredo Tafuri prin negarea oricarui viitor formulei de avant-garda traditionala, teoreticienii arhitecturii din Italia isi datorau o reformulare de fond, ceea ce s-a petrecut cu ocazia celei de-a 15-a Trienale la MIlano in 1973. Cu ocazia acestui eveniment international s-au manifestat Aldo Rossi, Carlo Aymonino, Leon Krier, Nino Dardi si Ludwig Leo si au fost prezentate proiecte ale grupului celor Cinci din New York.
In timp ce intoarcerea lui Aldo Rossi la clasicism si monumentalitate, definita inca de la inceput prin cuvintele sale – “sa ne concentram asupra unui univers rigid alcatuit din cateva obiecte” – a gasit o audienta favorabila in acea vreme, arhitectului Massimo Scolari i-a fost harazit sa dea un nume miscarii: Tendenza, cunoscuta pe plan international sub numele de “Arhitectura Rationala”.
Dupa Scolari, caracteristicile miscarii Tendenza au fost mai multe. Una dintre acestea a fost investirea arhitecturii cu propria sa autonomie, adica propria sa disciplina si propriul sau repertoriu de “tipuri” si forme, independente de metode exterioare de conformare, de orice forma de contaminare economica sau sociala. Aceasta “rationale”, asa cum se prezenta, a fost necesara nu numai sa limiteze exprimarea avant-gardei (careia i s-a contrapus ca “Noua Arhitectura” in chiar titlul eseului lui Massimo Scolari din care extragem aici un fragment) dar si sa reinvie o relatie cu istoria si (la nivel urban) cu monumentalitatea, care fusese eliminata de functionalismul dogmatic al proiectarii moderniste.
In universul Platonic al lui Aldo Rossi, monumentalitatea ajunge sa constituie aproape o raportare a elementelor arhitecturale la formele esentiale ale Neoclasicismului lui Lougier, fiind chiar reluata ideea de “tip” a lui Quatremere de Quincy ca regula generatoare de model si nu ca ceva ce trebuie imitat. A fost un experiment indraznet in traditionalism ce va avea urmari semnificative in urmatoarea decada, atat in Europa cat si in America de Nord.
AVANT GARDE AND THE NEW ARCHITECTURE
Monumentality is based above all on a need that emerges from a more than superficial examination of the urban phenomenon. Indeed, the destiny of the community seems to express itself „with characteristics of permanence” at those physically and psychologically pivotal points that are urban monuments. one of the most important contributions of the „scuola di Rossi” to the foundation of an urban science is having individuated within the city as product the dialectic between primary elements (monuments) and residential areas. In particular, says Rossi, „monuments, signs of the collective will expressed through the principles of architecture, seem to present themselves as primary elements, fixed points of the urban dynamic.”
This conception of the city as work of art has specific reference points in the work of Levi-Strauss and even more in the thought of Maurice Halbwachs, who finds the typical nature of urban reality to lie in the characteristics of imagination and collective memory.
In this conception of the city, the monumental highlights above all the outgrowths (dimensional and qualitative) around which the urban topography revolves. For the Tendenza, however, its role, which might be seen only to concern the results of historical and formal analysis, lies also and above all in planning as an indication of simplicity and formal rarefaction.
The choice of monumentalism thus comes to convey a new vision of the city. It critiques the undifferentiated expansion and misery of quantity deceptively guided by the tools of zoning, in a city in which one might instead recognize and design the parts organically related to its structure: city parts within which the relationship between urban morphology and building typology would isolate and foreground those collective fixed points around which the private city builds and transforms itself.
What the city today is in danger of losing forever is its own consciousness, its individuality, its character of civilization. It is on the verge of losing (like Milan) its historic center, devastated by the service-industry invasion, which has destroyed those precious signs that once culturally anchored the city’s transformations and development to an awareness of its own history.
The new monumentality thus implies a demand for unity and simplicity. It is a response that is supposed to counter the disorder of the modern city with the clarity of few but decisive rules. It expresses a wish to recuperate definitively a character of the city, by starting with simplicity of the needs of the collective spirit and with the feeling of unity in the means used to satisfy them.
The concept of monumentality also aims to recuperate a new dignity for art, whether it is the art identifiable in the city plan, in the city’s texture as product [manufatto], or in the single building. Moreover, „the monument” foregrounds the collectivity dominant in the very structure of–the city and controls it, so to speak, „democratically.”
On a more broadly social level, the choice of monumentalism opposes the consumerism of the private city, the artificial demand for the new – since, with the growth of the needs of capitalist society, private interests tend to search for minute combinations unable to satisfy real needs but efficient in continually creating new ones, both on the physical and psychological levels. And satisfying the desire for novelty seems in the end to be one of those circumstances shaped by the few to the detriment of the many.
Ilustratiile apartin lui Massimo Scolari (desen si pictura) unele reprezentand studii la propriile proiecte.